Construction 3D Printing Process | Explained

4 Mins read
Construction 3D Printing
Construction 3D Printing/Source: Sika Group

Construction 3D printing, also known as concrete 3D printing, is the process of printing structures with concrete materials. Even though these printers use the additive manufacturing principle, they face different challenges, and the 3D printing process is thus slightly different in terms of the equipment used, the parameters to be controlled, and the systems to print a structure.

Construction 3D printing enables the creation of complex and intricate architectural designs that would be difficult or costly to achieve with traditional construction methods. It allows for greater design freedom, customization, and the integration of complex details and organic shapes.

This technology has the potential to reduce construction costs by minimising labor requirements, optimising material usage, and streamlining the construction process. It eliminates the need for formwork and reduces material waste. With 3D printing, it is possible to elaborate geometries, curved structures, and customised designs with ease.

We take a quick look at the stages of 3D printing, the factors influencing print quality, and the process involved in construction 3D printing.

Concrete 3D Printing Stages

A typical concrete 3D printing process follows three stages of Data preparation, Concrete material preparation and 3D printing.

Data Preparation

The data preparation stage involves path generation for the robotic arms. The nozzle is attached to the robotic arm, and it moves around with the help of massive guide rails. These also form the boundaries of the print area. The robotic arm with its nozzle moves within the confines of the area in the same way that an extruder in an FDM 3D printer does.

The advanced software creates individual slices of the model to be 3D printed. The path is then charted out and movement of the arm is optimised for 3D printing the concrete structure.

Concrete Material Preparation

3D printed concrete material
Strengthening 3D printed concrete material/Source: RMIT University

The concrete material preparation stage prepares the material for use in the 3D printer. The concrete material is more difficult to work with than other traditional 3D printing materials. Preparing, mixing, and loading the concrete 3D printing material into a container are all part of the material preparation stage. This freshly prepared material is then pumped into the nozzle as and when needed during printing. Primarily, four factors influence print quality during this stage.

  1. Pumpability: The ease with which material is moved through the pump delivery system.
  2. Printability: The ease and dependability with which material can be deposited using a deposition device.
  3. Buildability: A deposited wet material’s resistance to deformation under load.
  4. Open time: The time period during which the other three properties are consistent within acceptable tolerances.

The behaviour of fresh concrete, particularly its pumpability and buildability, deteriorates over time in concrete 3D printing processes, and it is critical to balance it for satisfactory results. Flowability also decreases over time, which can result in intermittent gaps in material deposition. These properties, however, are difficult to control and vary greatly depending on the manufacturer’s concrete mix, the delivery systems used, and the deposition device used. A slight variation in any of these elements can have a significant impact on print quality.

Concrete 3D Printing Process

Concrete 3D Printing
Concrete 3D printing in action/Source: Sika Group

There are multiple construction 3D printing technologies but the printing process is generally carried out through gantry systems or robotic arm systems.

In the gantry system, the manipulator, a device to manipulate the concrete material eliminating the need for physical contact by an operator, is mounted onto the overhead to locate the print nozzle in XYZ coordinates. But this also restricts the amount of freedom of the 3D printer.

In the robotic arm systems, as it eliminates the use of manipulator, the system offers additional degrees of freedom to the nozzle, allowing more accurate printing workflows such as printing with tangential continuity method.

But, regardless of the system used for construction 3D printing, the coordination between the nozzle travel speed and the material flow rate is crucial to the outcome of the printed filament. If needed, multiple robotic arms can be programmed to run simultaneously to reduce the overall printing time.

After the 3D printing, post-processing procedures can be applied to remove any excess parts created as support structures or any surface finishing is required. This can also be automated in some cases.

Other Applications of 3D Printing

Aside from the construction industry, diaphragm pump manufacturing companies such as KNF also use 3D printing due to its ability to produce intricate geometries that may be challenging or costly to achieve using traditional manufacturing methods.  

Diaphragm pumps are widely used in medical and pharmaceutical applications, such as laboratory equipment, diagnostic devices, fluid transfer systems, and drug delivery systems. The flexibility of 3D printing allows for the creation of customised designs and intricate internal structures, optimising the performance of the diaphragm pump.  

In addition, the aerospace and defence industries utilise 3D printing to produce lightweight components, complex structures, and customised parts for aircraft, satellites, and defence equipment. It helps reduce weight, increase fuel efficiency, and improve performance.  

3D printing is also the technology for custom tooling, jigs, and fixtures used in manufacturing processes. It offers faster production, customisation, and cost savings than traditional methods.


Construction 3D printing is gaining rapid adoption and a lot of companies are now exploring its potential. You can read about the top construction 3D printing companies in the world to know how they have developed 3D printing technologies, sustainable materials and have completed multiple projects.

About Manufactur3D Magazine: Manufactur3D is an online magazine on 3D printing. which publishes the latest 3D printing news, insights and analysis from all around the world. Visit our 3D Printing Education page to read more such informative articles. To stay up-to-date about the latest happenings in the 3D printing world, like us on Facebook or follow us on LinkedIn and Twitter.

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Manufactur3D is an Indian Online 3D Printing Media Platform that reports on the latest news, insights and analysis from the Indian and the Global 3D Printing Industry.
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